Grade 4, Science Olympiad (CBSE) - Food, Cooking and Preservation 

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Grade 4  |   Science  |   Food, Cooking and Preservation, Food and Clothing, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, Maths Olympiad, Science Olympiad, English Olympiad


The food we eat consists of carbohydrates, fats, protiens, vitamins and minerals. These substances together are called nutrients.

We need nutrients

  • for energy to perform our daily tasks.
  • to grow.
  • to repair our body.
  • to protect us from infections and diseases.

The food we eat is rich in one nutrient or other but no food provides all essential nutrients. We need all nutrients for energy, growth and healthy body. We should include food items rich in different nutrients in our diet. Such a diet which has a balance of all essential nutrients is called a balanced diet.



Carbohydrates are energy giving food.

Carbohydrates are found in following food products :
Dairy products: Milk, yogurt, and ice cream.
Fruits: Whole fruit and fruit juice.
Grains: Bread, rice, crackers, and cereal.
Vegetables: Potato and corns
Sugars and sweet things


Fats give us energy. Fats are required but not in excess. Excessive fats get stored in our body and clog our blood vessels resulting in heart diseases.
Food items that provide us fats are nuts, cheese, chocolates, whole eggs, meat, oils and ghee etc.


Proteins are bodybuilding food. They help in repair and growth of the body. They help in building muscles. We get proteins from eggs, fish, milk, cheese and chicken.



Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and minerals protect us from falling sick. They keep us healthy. They are called as protective food. We get vitamins and minerals from milk, fruits and vegetables.
Minerals are needed for strong bones and teeth.


Milk is rich in proteins vitamins and minerals like calcium. Calcium makes our bones and teeth strong.

We should eat lots of fruits during summers as fruits also keep our body hydrated.

Vitamin C is essential for building immunity. Immunity helps us to fight infections and viruses. Citrus fruits like oranges and lemons are a rich source of Vitamin C.

Water helps in digestion.
Water helps in regulating body temperature.
The average adult human body is 50-65% water.

Roughage is the indigestible part of grains, vegetables and fruits. It helps in digestion.



Various methods of cooking are boiling, baking, roasting, frying, simmering, steaming etc.

We cook food because :
A) Cooking kills germs and make our food healthy
B) Food becomes soft and digestible
C) Food becomes good in taste"

Food Preservation

Food preservation is the process of keeping food fresh for a long time. 

There are various methods for food preservation :

  1. Drying: Some food items are dried to keep them preserved for a long time. e.g. dry fruits
  2. Freezing or Refrigeration: Some food items are frozen to preserve taste and nutritional values. e.g. frozen peas 
  3. Pickling: Pickling is another way of food preservation
  4. Fermenting: Fermenting is another way of food preservation
  5. Canning: Vegetables, meat and other food items are preserved by canning.
  6. Sweetening: When sugar is added to a food it kills germs. Sugar also adds to taste of the food. e.g. jelly, jams
  7. Salting: Fishes and some other food items are dehydrated by salting them.

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Balanced Diet
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