Grade 5 | Science | Reproduction in plants, Living, non living things and Plants, Olympiad, CBSE, ICSE, SOF, ITO
Plants can reproduce new plants (offsprings) by two ways:
*Gametes: They are the male and female reproductive cells - pollen and eggs.
Sexual reproduction in plants:
In sexual reproduction male (pollen) and female (ovules) gametes diffuse to produce a new plant. New plant produced is not completely identical to any one of the parent. Flowers are the main sex organs of plants. They consist of both male and female parts.
Stamen is the male part which consists of anther and filament. It produces pollen grains. Pollens dust, generally yellow colored, is transferred to female parts by different agents called pollinators.
A pistil is the female reproductive part. It contains single or multiple carpels. A carpel consists of stigma, style and ovary. An ovary is the swollen base of pistil and it contains ovules(eggs). These ovules are the potential seeds. Stigma is the sticky part to which pollen grains are attached.
Pollens from anthers are transferred by wind, water, insects or animals. These pollens when fall on stigma become attached. The process of transfer of pollen grains from male reproductive parts (stamens) to female reproductive parts (pistil) is called Pollination.
These pollen grains then move to the base of the pistil and into the ovary where they diffuse with ovules to form zygotes which finally turn into produce seeds. This process of combination of pollen and ovule to form a zygote is called fertilization.
Self-pollination - When pollens from the same flower fertilize the ovules of the same flower.
Cross-pollination - When pollens from a flower fertilize the ovules of a different flower.
Abiotic pollination - Pollination occurred with the help of non-living things like wind and water is known as abiotic pollination.
Biotic pollination - Pollination occurred with the help of living things like insects, birds, animals and humans is known as biotic pollination.
Ferns and mosses reproduce through spores.
Seeds Dispersal: Seeds produced are fertilization contain plant offspring. These seeds are disbursed by various methods.